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References

Low Back Pain

1 James SL, Abate D, Abate KH, et al. (2017) Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 2018; 392: 1789-858.

2 Yang, H., Haldeman, S., Lu, M.-L., Baker, D., (2016) Low Back Pain Prevalence and Related Workplace Psychosocial Risk Factors: A Study Using Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 39, 459–472.

3 Romeo, V., Covello, M., Salvatore, E., Parente, C.A., Abbenante, D., Biselli, R., Ciriello, M., Musolino, P., Salvatore, M., Cangiano, A., (2019) High Prevalence of Spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Asymptomatic Young Adults (18–22 Yrs) Candidate to Air Force Flight: SPIN.

4 De Schepper, E.I.T., Damen, J., van Meurs, J.B.J., Ginai, A.Z., Popham, M., Hofman, A., Koes, B.W., Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M., (2010) The Association Between Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Low Back Pain: The Influence of Age, Gender, and Individual Radiographic Features. Spine 35.

5 Sizer, P.S., Brismée, J.-M., Cook, C., (2007) Medical Screening for Red Flags in the Diagnosis and Management of Musculoskeletal Spine Pain. Pain Practice 7, 53–71.

Neck and Thoracic Pain

1 McKenzie, Robin. (2011) Treat Your Own Neck. 5th Edition. Spinal Publications New Zealand Ltd.

2 Teresi LM, Lufkin RB, Reicher MA, et al. (1987) Asymptomatic degenerative disk disease and spondylosis of the cervical spine: MR imaging. Radiology, 164:83-8.

3 Nakashima, H., Yukawa, Y., Suda, K., Yamagata, M., Ueta, T., Kato, F., (2015) Abnormal Findings on Magnetic Resonance Images of the Cervical Spines in 1211 Asymptomatic Subjects: Spine 40, 392–398.

4 Ito, Z., Harada, A., Matsui, Y., Takemura, M., Wakao, N., Suzuki, T., Nihashi, T., Kawatsu, S., Shimokata, H., Ishiguro, N., (2006) Can you diagnose for vertebral fracture correctly by plain X-ray? Osteoporos Int 17, 1584–1591.

5 Sizer, P.S., Brismée, J.-M., Cook, C., (2007) Medical Screening for Red Flags in the Diagnosis and Management of Musculoskeletal Spine Pain. Pain Practice 7, 53–71.

Shoulders, Hips And Knees

1 Connor, P.M., Banks, D.M., Tyson, A.B., Coumas, J.S., D’Alessandro, D.F., 2003. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Asymptomatic Shoulder of Overhead Athletes: A 5-Year Follow-up Study. Am J Sports Med 31, 724–727.

2 Ben-Galim, P., Steinberg, E.L., Amir, H., Ash, N., Dekel, S., Arbel, R., 2006. Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee and Unjustified Surgery: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 447, 100–104.

3 Culvenor, A.G., Øiestad, B.E., Hart, H.F., Stefanik, J.J., Guermazi, A., Crossley, K.M., (2019) Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis features on magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic uninjured adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 53, 1268–1278.

4 Heidar Abady, A., Rosedale, R., Chesworth, B.M., Rotondi, M.A., Overend, T.J., 2017. Application of the McKenzie system of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) in patients with shoulder pain; a prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 25, 235–243.

5 Rosedale R, Rastogi R, Kidd J, Lynch G, Supp G, Robbins S, A study exploring the prevalence of Extremity Pain of Spinal Source (EXPOSS), J Man Manip Ther., published online, 2019.

Vertigo, Dizziness, and Balance

1 Walter, Jeff. Vestibular Rehabilitation: Bedside and Office Examination of the Vestibular System. Medbridge, 1 Apri – 28 April 2020, https://www.medbridgeeducation.com/

Strength, Flexibility, & Movement Screens

¹ McKay, M.J., Baldwin, J.N., Ferreira, P., Simic, M., Vanicek, N., Burns, J., For the 1000 Norms Project Consortium, 2017. Normative reference values for strength and flexibility of 1,000 children and adults. Neurology 88, 36–43.